Gendered change to transparency in extractives starts in West Africa

Making women visible and locating gender expertise in their own movements have put West African Publish What You Pay (PWYP) coalitions at the forefront of working with gender in extractives. But there is a long journey ahead before minds and work processes have shifted to more gendered ways of working.

How do you change a system that is largely ‘gender blind’? That is, if women are systematically underrepresented or absent from discussions, if gender is not on the agenda, and if women are made even more invisible by not gender disaggregating routinely collected data and using it for analysis.

For many (if not most) civil society groups seeking to influence the transparent governance of extractive industries in their countries, this is a reality. And it led to PWYP picking up the challenge to undertake some research, led by three PWYP coalitions in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Guinea and Senegal), with others joining (Ghana, Nigeria and Togo) to do a gender scan of their own coalitions and membership. These gender scans sought to answer: Where do women and men currently participate in our system? Where are there gender disparities and why? And where is there existing gender expertise among our members that we can collectively draw on?   

Gender ‘neutrality’ solidifies status quo

A wealth of literature points to inherent gender inequalities in the extractives sector, with benefits and risks unfairly shared. Consequently, gender blind policies and data (until recently considered ‘gender neutral’) actually create negative gender outcomes for women by helping to maintain, or further aggravate, existing power imbalances while failing to support women as a force for development.

Other factors may also play in. A predominantly male culture can make informal ‘pat-on-the-back deals’ between men more acceptable. To thrive in this culture, women may have to adjust to it rather than using their voice to express solidarity with more marginalized women. All this affects transparency, as exemplified across the PWYP coalitions’ reports.

Recently the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) has been more vocal on gender issues. However, it is up to EITI implementing countries to put a more transformative gender approach into practice. So far, much has remained aspirational, and a previous PWYP blog argues that women have largely been left behind. Three key takeaways from the West African gender research are synthesized below:

  • Make women – and gender disparities – visible

It’s easy to accept status quo for as long as women are mostly invisible and gender issues are not systematically analyzed. At present that is the case. A gender break-down of participation in governance and decision-making structures within the EITI universe is not easily available; neither is it always clear what percentage of participants were women or representing local women’s groups when validations of EITI reports took place locally.

Multi-stakeholder groups (MSGs) – with representatives from government, companies and civil society mandated to oversee the national EITI implementation – had a representation of women which varied from 7% to 20%. Some MSGs elsewhere have no women participating at all according to research by the Institute for Multi-stakeholder Initiative Integrity (2015).

Another form of making women invisible is not gender disaggregating data in the reporting. When it exceptionally happens, reported gender disparities are revealing. For instance, in Burkina Faso the 2016 EITI report showed that women held less than 3% of all jobs created by mining companies (with no further analysis included, or contextualized information from women’s groups on the ground). Moreover, a cross-country comparison is not possible since up until now, gender disaggregation of data is not required according to the EITI Standard.  

  • Make gender issues discussed and acted upon

But lopsided participation is only one side of the story. The sometimes astonishingly low level of participation of women in EITI processes is often symptomatic of broader, deeper, more structural gender inequalities and power imbalances. These need to be analyzed holistically, with a wider-angle gender lens.

Several of the coalition research reports found glaring gaps between the relatively good national policy framework for advancing gender equality (e.g. via national gender plans and strategies), and the complete absence of any references to gender in the frameworks regulating extractive industries. Local women’s groups as well as national public institutions mandated to promote gender equality (such as the Gender Ministry, the gender unit in the Ministry of Planning etc.) could play an important role in making such linkages clearer, with PWYP potentially helping to broker such knowledge.

Each of the participating PWYP coalitions could identify at least a few members with particularly relevant gender expertise. While some of them had previously been relatively inactive in the coalition, the ‘buzz’ of doing this research led to increased interest, with a few additional gender-focused groups wanting to join as members.

  • Get gender into the institutional DNA and culture

As part of the research, we developed a method for visualizing and tracking gender references across key documents (work plans, strategic plans, reporting etc.) to determine whether gender really was part of the institutional DNA or whether it was just mentioned in passing. Any reference (or dedicated publication) on gender issues was either classified as: aspirational – meaning that it constituted a recommendation or non-obligatory guidance, but had not yet happened; normative – indicating some sort of obligation (e.g. in a Code of Conduct); informational – stating a fact, announcing upcoming gender-focused events or providing a gender break-down of participation; results-oriented – accounting for gendered impacts or results (including analysis of such results); and community generated – representing feedback and data from those who are closest to the problem on the ground.

Even though coalitions often reported a complete absence – or at best aspirational or informational – gender references in key documents at this point, the idea is to continue to use this classification to track how it might evolve over time. It could also be a way to hold each other mutually to account for incorporating a gender dimension in the EITI multi-stakeholder partnership.

In conclusion, isolated gender projects like this one clearly cannot do the job of gender mainstreaming the broader EITI process on its own. Nevertheless, this research – as part of a longer PWYP gender project funded by the Hewlett Foundation – can maybe be a first trigger. In addition to taking stock and providing a baseline, it illustrates how women are not just potential victims or passive beneficiaries of extractive resources or economic opportunities in the sector; they are also forceful change makers. That is when they are not excluded, and when deeper gender inequalities are not ignored.  

A gendered approach to transparently governed extractive industries may still be a distant destination, but at least in West Africa, the navigation for how to get there has started.

Have women been left behind in the transparency and accountability agenda?

“How can we effect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feels welcome to participate in the conversation?”

These words, spoken by UN Women Goodwill Ambassador, Emma Watson, in 2014 capture the drive behind Publish What You Pay’s (PWYP) newly launched two-year Gender & Extractives pilot project, which is being supported by the Hewlett Foundation. Starting with one of the key transparency and accountability mechanisms in the oil, gas and mining sector, the project will look at how the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) could be implemented in a way that ensures women’s active participation, including in decision making processes about the exploitation of their natural resources. Initiated in response to calls from PWYP members to address the gendered impact of natural resource extraction, the project will take into consideration women’s distinct experiences of the extractive sector, and of the EITI process in particular, in order to inform transparency policies and governance reforms that better respond to women’s needs and priorities.

Stephanie Rochford, Director of Member Engagement at the PWYP International Secretariat, speaks about PWYP’s objectives and approach on this project.

1. Tell us more about PWYP’s motivations for taking on this project and why it is important

There is a wide consensus, as highlighted by the articles in a recent issue of Oxfam’s Gender & Development journal, that the exploitation of natural resources affect women and men differently, and that it is women who bear the brunt of the negative consequences such as environmental degradation, with access to few of the benefits such as employment. Yet, there is very little research to assess whether the information being made available as a result of the initial push for transparency by organisations like PWYP – including fiscal data such as royalties, signature bonuses and taxes – is accessible to, and being used by, women to address the specific challenges they face as a result of extractive activities. And whether it is relevant in informing policies that address the impact of those extractive activities on both men and women; or whether women are as able as men to participate, and to be heard, in multi-stakeholder initiatives such as the EITI.

For example, the information currently being disclosed thanks to EITI and mandatory payment disclosure laws is critical for deterring corruption and enabling citizens to assess whether their country is getting a good deal for its natural resources. However, it has become clear that what the EITI, and other transparency and accountability initiatives, have not taken into account in their theory of change is the extent to which women and men have different experiences of the extractive sector; different capacities to relate to, access and use data that is made available; and, consequently, that different types of data may be required to ensure that women’s rights are addressed by the policies which these data disclosure initiatives seek to influence.

If the disclosure of information which reflects women’s distinct experiences continues to be overlooked by a key transparency mechanism then there is little likelihood of women being truly engaged in that mechanism, or of policies leading to real change for those women impacted by the sector.

Our project seeks not only to address how we can place gender at the centre of the transparency and accountability work that PWYP coalitions do with communities impacted by extractive activities. We are also looking to our own institutional processes, and those of the EITI, to understand how we can place a gender perspective at the heart of our own organisations. Even a cursory look at the proportion of women who sit on the national EITI boards, known as multi-stakeholder groups (MSGs) made up of government, industry & civil society representatives; as well as the proportion of women to men among many PWYP national coalitions, indicates that women are not equally represented or heard at the table even within our own movement. And a recent roundtable discussion organised by NRGI and Oxfam, which gathered key voices in the transparency and accountability and the gender justice fields, concluded that there is very little research available to inform an understanding of whether women are indeed benefiting from the increased transparency that we have witnessed from the sector over the last decade.

We therefore need to begin addressing this systemic failure to advance gender equity within the transparency and accountability movement. And to push for the publication and analysis of information that will support policies that respond to the different experiences of men and women affected by oil, gas and mining activities.

For accountability to be truly achieved, and for that accountability to lead to improved lives for the citizens of resource rich countries, the voices and perspectives of all members of affected communities needs to be heard and considered. As a key mechanism which is leading the promotion of accountability in the management of natural resources, the EITI is therefore a prime starting point to ensure women’s perspectives and voices are heard.

2. Who will be involved in the project?

We will be implementing this pilot project with our national PWYP coalitions in Burkina Faso, Guinea and Senegal as these are the countries where both our members and the EITI Secretariats are keen to address the issues of gender equity and transparency. In addition, we will work in a further four West African countries to undertake gender ‘scans’ of the PWYP coalitions there.

We will be working with key actors – civil society representatives, community members, government and industry officials – with the aim of building their capacity in order to be able to address the following questions:

  • What barriers are there to women’s participation in the EITI process? Looking specifically at barriers which might prevent women’s voices being heard during consultation and feedback at the community level and within the Multi Stakeholder Group.
  • How can the EITI be used as a tool to advance gender equity and to reduce the negative impact of oil, gas and mining activities on women?
  • What type and/or format of data is most useful to ensure information published through the EITI process reflects and helps to effectively mitigate against the negative ways in which women are impacted by oil, gas and mining activities?
  • How can PWYP coalitions and MSGs in Senegal, Guinea and Burkina Faso ensure meaningful and representative participation by, and engagement with, women and women’s rights organisations at an institutional level?
3. What do you expect to come out of this project?

While this is a pilot project for PWYP, over the coming year, we expect to increase the understanding by key actors in Burkina Faso, Guinea and Senegal – including government, civil society and industry stakeholders – of how women and men are impacted by, and able to participate differently in, extractive (governance) activities and of what type of data could inform mitigation of those impacts.
We expect this understanding to lead to both process-level changes in how EITI is implemented in those countries, and how women’s voices are reflected and taken into account in that implementation process. In addition we expect to see disclosure of different types or formats of data that could inform policies that are able to address and mitigate the specific negative impacts of extractive activities on women.

In addition, we expect the project to give PWYP a better understanding of how we can embed a gender perspective at an institutional level into our own network – in other words, how can we as PWYP walk the walk on gender equity?

If these key expectations are met, we anticipate seeing policy reforms that are grounded in evidence and that will effectively address the impact of mining, oil and gas projects on women; as well as a more effective natural resource governance movement where information disclosure is informed by, and used by, key stakeholders – including women – to transform their lives.

Transparency in mining: Large decline under the transitional government in Burkina Faso

  • Doubts expressed on the completeness and reliability of data
  • Unjustified differences on export data
  • Burkina Faso has just published its fifth report for the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) covering the year 2013. The information in the report, prepared under the country’s transitional government, indicates that overall transparency in the sector has greatly decreased, thus making it difficult to assess the contribution of mining to Burkina Faso’s economic growth. In addition the authors of the report have raised concerns about the completeness and reliability of this data which is a basis requirement for the EITI. Realising these are controversial statements allow us please to clarify.

    Indeed, in determining the scope of consolidation, 24 companies were selected based on three criteria, namely:

    1. Companies whose payments to the state exceed 100 million CFA francs, or about US $ 165,000;
    2. Companies who were listed in the 2012 EITI report, and;
    3. Purchase counters with a volume greater than or equal to 50 kg.

    According to the 2013 EITI report, all companies included in that scope submitted a declaration in accordance with the instructions, except for five; Kalsaka Mining, Newmont Ventures LTD, Pinsapo Gold, Metals SAV’Or and SA ‘Or. The last two are in the process of setting up offices in the country and could not be contacted as part of the EITI report. For the first three, the Ministry of Mines and Energy gave explanations. We learnt that Kalsaka Mining would stop production and faces liquidation. Newmont Ventures LTD decided to sell its shares to Cluff Africa Associates following unsatisfactory results of the additional research in Poura.

    Finally, the activities of Pinsapo Gold have stopped since 2011 for technical reasons. Although none of the five companies reported any payments, according to data from the country’s public administration, revenues collected from these companies amounted to 7.82 billion CFA francs, approximately US $ 11,5 million, which represents 3.8% of total revenues from the sector in 2013.

    As for the reliability of the data, differences were observed in the quantity of gold export. In fact a difference of 8 kg gold was noted between the statements of mining companies and those of the state. This resulted in a monetary difference of 8.177 billion CFA francs (approx. US $13 million) between the statements of both parties, without an explanation given by any of the parties.
    The report also notes that none of the public administrations involved in the collection of data have shared information about their received payments.

    The Ministry of Economy and Finance did not release information relating to the Environment Rehabilitation Fund (FRE) with the authors of the EITI 2013 report. However, mining companies reportedly payed 919 million CFA francs (US $ 1,5 million) in 2013 towards this Fund, representing 0.45% of total industry revenue for 2013.

    Moreover, the actual ownership of mining companies was not disclosed through the Budget Direction (DGB), as wasn’t the contribution of the extractive sector to overall employment levels in the country. Finally, data on mining licenses provided by the Ministry of Mines did not contain any information about the date of the application, the date of expiry and the geographical coordinates of each permits. Financial and technical conditions for the granting of permits in 2013 have not been provided by the General Directorate of Mines and Geology. “This situation is likely to call into question the completeness of financial data and contextual information disclosed in the report, and could be an obstacle to validation against the EITI standard,” the auditors of the EITI report concluded.

    The data of the Directorate General of Taxes is unreliable

    The statements of the Directorate General of Taxes (DGI) have several duplicates, erroneous attributions of receipt numbers and payments relating to previous years. This was due to a change in the DGI software package from “SYNTAX” to “2 SYNTAX” which has generated database errors. The situation has generated significant discrepancies between the statements of the two entities, part of which could not be reconciled. It may compromise the data published by the DGI on data collected and recorded in government accounts.

    Difficulty in reconciling customs duties

    The authors of the EITI report noted that payments to Customs are made by third parties on behalf of the companies before these payments are recorded at company level on the basis of aggregated freight bills. This means that companies do not always have the details of each individual payment made. Also, the reconciliation of the details from receipts and aggregated freight bills are not routinely done by companies. This situation, according to the report, is not likely to facilitate the conciliation proceedings. It even generated a delay in the recovery of payments and the gap analysis.

    PWYP Burkina Faso clearly takes note of the above which will threaten the country’s compliant status within the EITI. We will continue to engage in the EITI to help ensure that our natural resources benefit our citizens, the ultimate goal of the EITI.

    Mining and climate change: what is the impact of mining activity on climate change?

    On the margins of COP21, as part of the “Climate Generations” space, civil society from Burkina Faso organised a session to address the impact of mining on climate change. The coordinator of Publish What You Pay (PWYP) in Burkina Faso, Jonas Hien, had made the trip with several coalition members to highlight this problem.

    Consistent with PWYP’s value chain approach, which goes beyond transparency of payments, civil society organisations keep an eye on all steps from the decision to extract to how the revenues from extraction are used. The impact of mineral extraction on the environment is not limited to the direct consequences on water sources or territory but must also take into account the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) generated by the extractive operations.

    As Burkina Faso has seen its mining sector boom, in particular gold, a report was commissioned by the national EITI Secretariat to measure the transparency of emissions of greenhouse gases in the mining sector.
    The first source of GHG emissions is the generation of electricity (60%) by thermal power plants for mining power requirements. Road transportation running on diesel of heavy machinery for mining work is the second cause of GHG emissions (31%). The other emission causes are the production of zinc and lead (8%) and waste management (1%).

    One of the first findings the report highlights is the difficulty of collecting data because of lack of transparency of environmental data. As these aren’t directly covered by the EITI, there is no requirement for them to be published.

    The report also shows that the Burkina Faso government is not able to measure the real impact of the mining industry due to lack of resources. The National Environmental Assessment Office under the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development, is the directorate responsible for monitoring the implementation of environmental and social management plan of the mining industry. In its current structure it does not have the capacities and equipment to take greenhouse gases into account. It is therefore essential to strengthen its central and decentralised capacities for effective monitoring of these emissions.
    Beyond this inventory of GHG emissions generated by the mining industry, the report raises the question of the contribution of this sector to climate change and the need to promote energy saving actions. While some countries in the EITI have already integrated the consideration of environmental impacts (for example Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and the Philippines), it is still only optional. Following the Paris agreement reached at COP21, which has set a goal of keeping the rise in global temperature below 2 ° to 1.5 °, the EITI can no longer ignore environmental issues. With the change in EITI leadership who was involved in previous climate change negotiations there is a clear opportunity for the next EITI board to mandate the publication of all information related to environmental protection compliance (including environmental and social impact assessments). To ensure that global warming remains below 2 degrees, many extractive projects would have to be suspended in order to limit these emissions.

    The transparency movement needs to be comprehensive and holistic and also involve the countries of origin for extractive companies including France, which has agreed to join the EITI in 2013 without initiating the formal candidature process. After hosting the UN conference on climate change, France must be a role model and promote full transparency of detailed information on environmental impacts of each extractive project to ensure compliance with the country’s commitment to keep climate change under 2 °.

    The next EITI Global Conference taking place in Peru in February 2016 is a key opportunity to increase awareness of environmental issues. An EITI focusing solely on the transparency of payments and licences is no longer fit for purpose considering the commitments made by the 196 states of the world through the Paris agreement.

    Tribute to Tiergou Pierre Dabiré


    It is with deep regret and sadness that we, the International Secretariat of Publish What You Pay (PWYP), announce the passing of Pierre Tiergou Dabiré, which happened on 13 October 2015 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Dabiré was the President of the African Network of Journalists for Integrity and Transparency (Rajit), Coordinator of PWYP’s Coalition in Burkina Faso “Mines Alerte Publiez Ce Que Vous Payez – Burkina” and Director of the journalist school in Burkina Faso. An activist driven by the importance of transparency, he was part of every fight to improve the governance of the mining sector in Burkina. Dabiré was a devoted husband and a caring father of two children.

    “The sudden passing of Dabiré is such terrible news. Having known him very well, both as a media professional and as a social activist, I am devastated”, said Mamadou Taran Diallo, Chair of PWYP Global Council and President of the Guinean Association for Transparency

    A journalist by profession, Mr. Dabiré was an activist committed to transparency and was completely invested in the advocacy campaign for the adoption of a new mining code in Burkina as well as the “1% campaign” on the revenue generated by the exploitation of gold.

    “An important transparency activist, Dabiré’s passing will be a terrible loss not only for his country but for the entire PWYP movement. He inspired important change for his co-citizens, notably this year with the success of the 1% campaign, and his wisdom, sense of humour and drive will be greatly missed”, said Marinke Van Riet, International Director of PWYP.

    In these painful circumstances, the International Secretariat wishes to share our deepest condolences with Dabiré’s family, his colleagues and the whole PWYP campaign.

    We were with Dabiré in August 2015 in Dakar, Senegal, at a workshop to capitalise on the revisions of mining code in West Africa, where we had the opportunity to talk with him about his life as an activist. The following interview reflects this discussion.

    « Transparency is communication » – Tiergou Pierre Dabiré

    I have been an activist since I was a student in France and involved in several student unions. When I returned home, I stayed involved in unions and later in human rights movements. Subsequently, we created a national network against corruption (RENLAC) as corruption became endemic after Thomas Sankara’s revolution. In 1997, I was approached by a university professor who had created ORCADE, an organisation working on increasing capacities in development. He suggested that I work with him and together our goal was to increase transparency in the extractive industries, in particular from 2006-2007.

    We become especially engaged in transparency at the beginning of Burkina Faso’s mining boom, with the first industrial mine opened in 2007. The impacted populations began to alert activists that their rights were violated, particularly at compensation level. As these people were our contacts at ORCADE, they shared these stories with us and we would then report them to the newspapers. We decided to set up a network of journalists to better disseminate information on violations of rights. The introduction of the EITI in Burkina in 2008 also provided an opportunity for us to strengthen our capacities on transparency issues.

    Journalists have an important role in promoting transparency in the extractive industries. I quote the President of Liberia, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, who said that the EITI is communication. I would add that transparency is communication. If you do not communicate, you can’t be transparent. And the situation of Burkina since November 2014 (the period of the popular uprising that swept the regime of Blaise Compaoré) confirms this. In the past, because of their money, mining companies were in a powerful position of influence, which meant that they could act in opacity. Following the popular uprising, people managed to regain power and began to invade the mining sites, ransacking and burning facilities. The mining companies realised then that if they didn’t communicate, they would start suffering losses. The role of the journalist is not only to provide information to the public but also to expose instances of bad governance.

    New mining code to unlock gold revenues for the future of Burkina Faso

    By giving gold revenue back to the Burkinabe and by reducing tax breaks for mining companies in the country, the new mining code in Burkina Faso could secure a brighter and more sustainable future for many generations ahead.

    We, Mines Alerte Publish What You Pay Burkina Faso, have been campaigning tirelessly with other CSOs since 2010 for a mining code that truly reflects the interests of Burkina Faso society. The mining industries has the potential to provide significant contributions to the development of our country and by asking for just 1% of the revenues of mining companies, we were confident that our goal was achievable and significant. With the passing of a new mining code on 26 June 2015 by our transitional parliament, our country has taken a giant step forward as the previous 10 percent tax break on mining company profits will be abolished and companies will now be required to pay into local development funds.

    Burkina Faso has been Africa’s fourth largest gold producer since 2012, a resource that accounts for roughly 20 percent of the gross domestic product. Mining is crucial to our country’s economy and now ranks above livestock farming and cotton production as a leading export. Gold mining is growing rapidly, with new discoveries every month, and with it comes thirsty investors, new companies and several mergers and acquisitions. With such a rapidly changing sector, it was important to ensure that the interests of the people are included in mining legislation and that good governance was upheld. Until now, the citizens of Burkina Faso haven’t been able to truly reap the fruits of our country’s mining boom. Instead, mining companies have enjoyed tax rates lower than in many of our neighbouring countries and have earned our Public Treasury a whopping 280 million US Dollars in 2014. At the same time, the previous mining code caused valuable public funds to be lost and communities around mining activities have particularly suffered from lack of income-generating opportunities. Burkina Faso suffers from high levels of poverty particularly affecting rural areas where modern infrastructures are still severely lacking. The country ranked 181 on the Human Development Index in 2014, among the ten lowest countries.

    Since 2010 we have been asking for a change to ease poverty in Burkina Faso and spur development of key public services and infrastructure.

    We wanted to see the best interests of Burkinabe served and the promotion local development enhanced rather than the favouring of mining companies. The mining code needed to more explicitly define the role of mining companies in the protection and development of communities close to mining activities, as well how the government would spend revenues earned from mining taxes.

    After much effort and a campaign that brought the support of many NGOs, donors, media and citizens, we were pleased to see that the new mining code in Burkina Faso was adopted. By passing this law, the government has acted in the best interest of the Burkinabe. The 1% from mining companies’ monthly revenue and the 20% from the government’s revenues collected from mining will be invested in regional development funds that will in majority be directed back to the mining communities and nearby communities. Parts of it will also be invested in wider national development. The fund will be overseen by a management committee that will include representatives from civil societies and from the communities directly affected by mining. In addition, the new Mining Code includes the consultation of the populations likely to be affected by mining operations during the exploration phase. This mean that in principle the communities can say no to a new mining activity, a right backed up by the Constitution of Burkina Faso that gives the populations the right of expression through a petition (article 30).

    It now remains to be seen how well the new code will be applied and if it will allow a real distribution of gold revenues. It’s one thing to pass the law. It’s another is to implement it effectively. In this regard, the Minister of Mines has been nothing but reassuring and the government has promised to make every effort to ensure that the texts are applied. Despite this, we are still waiting to see details on the implementation of the local mining funds. Our role as civil society is to monitor and assess whether the government keeps its word and if the 1% are successfully redistributed to the people of Burkina Faso.

    Burkina Faso

    The PWYP coalition in Burkina Faso works mainly on the EITI process by disseminating reports and raising awareness about environmental issues among communities living alongside gold mining sites. The coalition is focused on using data from EITI reports to demand greater government accountability over the use of extractive industry revenues. It engaged with the government and other CSOs to secure the passage of a law under which 1 percent of mining companies’ monthly revenue and 20 percent of government revenues from mining will be invested in regional development funds, with the majority directed back to mining communities and those nearby. PWYP Burkina also works to secure disclosure of mining contracts. The coalition was relaunched in 2014 as “Mines Alert-PWYP Burkina”.